Midodrine hydrochloride is indicated for the treatment of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension (OH). Because midodrine hydrochloride can cause marked elevation of supine blood pressure (BP>200 mmHg systolic), it should be used in patients whose lives are considerably impaired despite standard clinical care, including non-pharmacologic treatment (such as support stockings), fluid expansion, and lifestyle alterations. The indication is based on midodrine hydrochloride’s effect on increases in 1-minute standing systolic blood pressure, a surrogate marker considered likely to correspond to a clinical benefit. At present, however, clinical benefits of midodrine hydrochloride, principally improved ability to perform life activities, have not been established. Further clinical trials are underway to verify and describe the clinical benefits of midodrine hydrochloride.